Reflectometry Based Noninvasive Diab-Nosis (RND) Device
Diabetes is the foremost challenging disease in many countries due to aging populations, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, and obesity. Fortunately, it can be cured by reducing glucose level in blood with the therapeutic process based on periodic diagnosis. Invasive glucose measurement causes painful pricking experience, blood loss, risk of infection and damage to finger tissue. It is also costly, since it requires diagnostic stripes for each diagnosis. Noninvasive blood glucose measurement overcomes those problems. Various noninvasive techniques available are bio-impedance spectroscopy, electromagnetic sensing, fluorescence technology, infrared spectroscopy, etc.
In all techniques blood thickness is analyzed to measure the blood glucose level. Even though there are plausible advantages in each method, the measurement is affected by temperature, body water content, blood dielectric parameters and sensor’s short lifetimes which inherently suffer the accuracy of the measurement. Hence, ultrasonic reflectometry is proposed. The key idea behind Reflectometry Noninvasive Diab-nosis (RND) Device method is to measure the blood glucose level by measuring a thickness of blood using transmittance and reflectance of ultrasonic waves.
This device consists of the ultrasonic sensor, signal conditioning unit and embedded processor with external connectivity. The ultrasonic sensor is placed in different parts of a body such as hand, ear, shoulder and leg at certain intervals of time. The ultrasonic sound wave is transmitted from the sensor to the above-mentioned parts. The reflected wave is given to the signal conditioning unit in order to make the reflected signal suitable for the processing unit. Based on the blood glucose level, the reflected signal is varied. The conditioned analog signals from the sensors are converted into digital value for processing. The digital values for the various observations are given to the neural network in order to get the optimised output. Then the blood glucose value is displayed in display unit. The blood glucose value is also connected to the GPRS, Bluetooth, UART/USB for future reference.